Viking Blood Eagle Tattoo

Jun 11, 2018 - Explore Stormblood's board "Viking rune tattoo" on Pinterest. See extra concepts about rune tattoo, norse tattoo, viking tattoos.Ubbe Ragnarsson is the first son of Ragnar Lothbrok and Aslaug. He used to be conceived out of wedlock which might have made him a bastard, however with Ragnar's marriage to Aslaug and divorce of Lagertha hebecame Ragnar's legitmate son and heir.He is the second one oldest of Ragnar's son and arguably themost mellow.He also intently resembleshis father when he was once a tender guy. He was married to Margrethe, butCheck out our viking eagle selection for the very best in distinctive or customized, handmade pieces from our stores.High quality Viking Cruises items and products. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more via independent artists and architects from world wide. All orders are customized made and most ship international inside 24 hours.Blood Eagle Tattoos, Portsmouth. 2,791 likes · 7 speaking about this · 1,142 were here. Viking themed tattoo studio primarily based in Hillsea, Portsmouth

Ubbe | Vikings Wiki | Fandom

Oct 9, 2020 - Explore Ty Wildmo's board "Blood eagle" on Pinterest. See extra ideas about back tattoo, frame art tattoos, tattoos.Blood Eagle Clothing. 435 likes. A small unbiased corporate with a love for Viking art and historical past and Norse mythologyEagle Viking The Raven of Tattoo Zip Hoodie 3-d Unisex S-5XL YouthShopLLC. From shop YouthShopLLC. 4.5 out of 5 stars (19) 19 evaluations Beware Of Viking Mug, Blood Eagle Mug, Intruders Will Be Blood Eagled, Valhalla Gifts, Valhalla Mug ValhallasGlory. From shop ValhallasGlory. Five out of five stars (1,204) 1,204 opinionsB L O O D - E A G L E The "Blood Eagle" used to be a viking ceremonial means of execution by means of torture; in step with the Norse Sagas, the prisoner had been lower from the

Ubbe | Vikings Wiki | Fandom

Viking eagle | Etsy

Hvitserk Ragnarssonis the second son of Ragnar Lothbrok and Aslaug 1 Season 2 2 Season 3 3 Season Four 4 Season 5 5 Season 6 6 Personality 7 Trivia 8 Gallery 9 Appearances Hvitserk was born within the 4 year gap between Season 2 Episode 1 and a pair of. Hvitserk is continuously observed along his brotherUbbe, and most likely looks up to him. Ubbe flees with Aslaug, Hvitserk, Rollo, Siggy and Helga after Jarl BorgThe blood eagle is very well-known for the Vikings & the norse mythology. It is a Viking ritual manner of execution , an actual torment that consists of opening the rib cage within the again , setting apart the ribs from the backbone and thus extracting the lungs of the victim, who is supposed to be alive.If the torturous blood eagle means of execution was once indeed practiced by means of the Vikings, then it is not most likely that a victim would remain aware for long. In a blood eagle execution, the sufferer's arms and legs have been tied to stop their get away. Then, the executioner would stab the sufferer near the tailbone, slashing upward towards the rib cage.The perfect possibilities of having a hint of Viking blood - remember that moderately a couple of generations have handed because the yr 1066 - come from having been born in the United Kingdom, preferably with ancestors who did not trip a lot after they killed the clergymen. A map of Viking conquests will show us the territories close to the coasts (duh) - England, ScotlandCheck out the largest Choice of High Quality Viking Leather Bracelet [Handmade] Enjoy Free Shipping and Unique Norse Jewelry Design with Viking Store. Viking Tattoos Viking Names The Valhalla The Valkyries Berserkers The Blood Eagle Famous Vikings Ragnar Lodbrok Rollo Björn Ironside Ivar the Boneless Harald Hardrada

Raven banner

Jump to navigation Jump to look This article is concerning the medieval flag. For the booklet, see The Raven Banner. Modern interpretation of the raven banner. Detail of a raven banner from the Bayeux tapestry.

The raven banner (Old Norse: hrafnsmerki; Middle English: hravenlandeye) used to be a flag, most likely totemic in nature, flown by more than a few Viking chieftains and other Scandinavian rulers right through the ninth, 10th and 11th centuries. The flag, as depicted in Norse paintings, used to be more or less triangular, with a rounded out of doors edge on which there hung a series of tabs or tassels. It bore a resemblance to ornately carved "weather-vanes" used aboard Viking longships.

Scholars conjecture that the raven flag was a logo of Odin, who was once incessantly depicted accompanied by two ravens named Huginn and Muninn. Its intent will have been to strike concern in a single's enemies through invoking the ability of Odin. As one student notes relating to encounters between the Christian Anglo-Saxons and the invading pagan Scandinavians:

The Anglo-Saxons most probably idea that the banners had been imbued with the evil powers of pagan idols, because the Anglo-Saxons have been conscious about the importance of Óðinn and his ravens in Norse mythology.[1]

Raven symbolism in Norse tradition

Vendel generation helmet with raven noseguard, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities. Raven artwork on a Swedish Vendel generation defend, on the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.

The raven is a common iconic figure in Norse mythology. The best possible god Odin had two ravens named Huginn and Muninn ("thought" and "memory" respectively) who flew around the world bringing back tidings to their grasp. Therefore, one of Odin's many names was the "raven god" (Hrafnaguð). In Gylfaginning (c. 1220), the medieval Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson explains:

Hrafnar tveir sitja á öxlum honum adequate segja í eyru honum öll tíðendi, þau er þeir sjá eða heyra. Þeir heita svá, Huginn good enough Muninn. Þá sendir hann í dagan at fljúga um heim allan, adequate koma þeir aftr at dögurðarmáli. Þar af verðr hann margra tíðenda víss. Því kalla menn hann Hrafnaguð, svá sem sagt er:

Huginn ok Muninn fljúga hverjan dag jörmungrund yfir; óumk ek Hugin, at hann aftr né komi, þó sjáumk ek meir of Munin."[2]

Two ravens sit on Odin's shoulders, and produce to his ears all that they listen and notice. Their names are Huginn and Muninn. At first light he sends them out to fly over the entire international, and they come back at breakfast time. Thus he gets details about many stuff, and therefore he is named Rafnagud (raven-god). As is right here mentioned:

Huginn and Muninn Fly on a daily basis Over the great earth. I fear for Hugin That he would possibly not return, Yet extra am I worried for Munin.[3]

Odin was additionally closely related to ravens because in Norse myths he gained the fallen warriors at Valhalla, and ravens were connected with death and conflict due to their predilection for carrion. It is in consequence most likely that they were thought to be manifestations of the Valkyries, goddesses who selected the valiant useless for military carrier in Valhalla.[4] An extra connection between ravens and Valkyries was once indicated within the shapeshifting abilities of goddesses and Valkyries, who could seem in the type of birds.[5]

The raven seems in nearly each skaldic poem describing war.[6] To make conflict used to be to feed and please the raven (hrafna seðja, hrafna gleðja).[6] An instance of that is present in Norna-Gests þáttr, where Regin recites the next poem after Sigurd kills the sons of Hunding:

Nú er blóðugr örn breiðum hjörvi bana Sigmundar á baki ristinn. Fár var fremri, sá er fold rýðr, hilmis nefi, ok hugin gladdi.[7]

Now the blood eagle With a extensive sword The killer of Sigmund Carved at the again. Fewer had been extra valiant As the troops dispersed A chief of folks Who made the raven happy.[8]

The coat of hands of the Isle of Man, a formerly Norse-dominated kingdom; notice the supporting raven on the correct.

Above all, kennings utilized in Norse poetry identify the raven because the chicken of blood, corpses and struggle;[9] he is the gull of the wave of the heap of corpses, who screams dashed with hail and craves morning steak as he arrives on the sea of corpses (Hlakkar hagli stokkin már valkastar báru, krefr morginbráðar er kemr at hræs sævi).[10]

In black flocks, the ravens hover over the corpses and the skald asks where they're heading (Hvert stefni þér hrafnar hart með flokk hinn svarta).[11] The raven is going forth in the blood of the ones fallen in battle (Ód hrafn í valblóði).[12] He flies from the sector of combat with blood on his beak, human flesh in his talons and the reek of corpses from his mouth (Með dreyrgu nefi, hang loðir í klóum en hræs þefr ór munni).[13] The ravens who have been the messengers of the perfect god, Huginn and Muninn, more and more had hellish connotations, and as early as within the Christian Sólarljóð, stanza 67, the ravens of Hel(l) (heljar hrafnar) who tear the eyes off backtalkers are mentioned.[9] Two curses in the Poetic Edda say "may ravens tear your heart asunder" (Þit skyli hjarta rafnar slíta).[14] and "the ravens shall tear out your eyes in the high gallows" (Hrafnar skulu þér á hám galga slíta sjónir ór).[15] Ravens are thus observed as tools of divine (if harsh and ugly) justice.

Despite the violent imagery related to them, early Scandinavians regarded the raven as a in large part positive figure; struggle and harsh justice were seen favorably in Norse culture.[16] Many Old Norse personal names referred to the raven, similar to Hrafn,[17] Hrafnkel[18] and Hrafnhild.[19]


Late 9th century

The raven banner was used by numerous Viking warlords regarded in Norse custom as the sons of Ragnar Lodbrok. The first mention of a Viking force sporting a raven banner is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. For the year 878, the Chronicle relates:

In the winter of the same year, the brother of Ivar and Halfdan landed in Devonshire, Wessex, with 23 ships, and he used to be killed there together with 800 other people and Forty of his soldiers. The battle banner (guþfana) which they called "Raven" was also taken.

The 12th-century Annals of St Neots claims that a raven banner was provide with the Great Heathen Army and provides insight into its seiðr- (witchcraft-) influenced creation and totemic and oracular nature:

Dicunt enim quod tres sorores Hynguari et Hubbe, filie uidelicet Lodebrochi, illud uexillum tex'u'erunt et totum parauerunt illud uno meridiano tempore. Dicunt etiam quod, in omni bello ubi praecederet idem signum, si uictoriam adepturi essent, appareret in medio signi quasi coruus uiuus uolitans; si uero uincendi in futuro fuissent, penderet directe nichil mouens — et hoc sepe probatum est[20]

It is alleged that 3 sisters of Hingwar and Habba [Ivar and Ubbe], i.e., the daughters of Ragnar Loðbrok, had woven that banner and gotten it able during one single midday's time. Further it's mentioned that if they had been going to win a battle wherein they followed that signum, there was to be noticed, within the center of the signum, a raven, gaily flapping its wings. But if they were going to be defeated, the raven dropped motionless. And this at all times proved true.[21][22]

Geffrei Gaimar's Estorie des Engles (written round 1140) mentions the Hrafnsmerki being borne via the army of Ubbe on the Battle of Cynwit (878): "[t]he Raven was Ubbe's banner (gumfanun). He was the brother of Iware; he was buried by the vikings in a very big mound in Devonshire, called Ubbelawe."[23]

tenth century Possible depiction of the raven banner at the reverse of a penny minted through Olaf Cuaran (940s). A "raven, wings displayed" on a penny minted by Olaf Cuaran (940s), "appears to represent the Viking war standard, the raven, probably derived from the Roman aquila."[24]

In the tenth century, the raven banner seems to were followed through Norse-Gaelic kings of Dublin and Northumbria. Many of the Norse-Gaelic dynasts in Britain and Ireland have been of the Uí Ímair extended family, which claimed descent from Ragnar Lodbrok thru his son Ivar. A triangular banner appearing to depict a fowl (most likely a raven) seems on a penny minted by means of Olaf Cuaran round 940. The coin includes a roughly appropriate isosceles triangular usual, with the two equilateral facets positioned on the most sensible and workforce, respectively. Along the hypotenuse are a sequence of five tabs or tassels. The workforce is topped by means of what appears to be a cross; this will likely indicate a fusion of pagan and Christian symbolism.

The raven banner used to be additionally a normal utilized by the Norse Jarls of Orkney. According to the Orkneyinga Saga, it was once made for Sigurd the Stout through his mom, a völva or shamanic seeress. She informed him that the banner would "bring victory to the man it's carried before, but death to the one who carries it." The saga describes the flag as "a finely made banner, very cleverly embroidered with the figure of a raven, and when the banner fluttered in the breeze, the raven seemed to be flying ahead." Sigurd's mother's prediction came true when, in step with the sagas, all the bearers of the standard met untimely ends.[25] The "curse" of the banner ultimately fell on Jarl Sigurd himself at the Battle of Clontarf:

Earl Sigurd had a troublesome combat in opposition to Kerthialfad, and Kerthialfad came on so rapid that he laid low all who had been in the front rank, and he broke the array of Earl Sigurd right as much as his banner, and slew the banner-bearer. Then he got any other man to endure the banner, and there used to be again a difficult combat. Kerthialfad smote this guy too his dying blow without delay, and so on one after the other all who stood close to him. Then Earl Sigurd known as on Thorstein the son of Hall of Sida, to undergo the banner, and Thorstein was on the subject of to boost the banner, but then Asmund the White stated, "Don't bear the banner! For all they who bear it get their death." "Hrafn the Red!" known as out Earl Sigurd, "bear thou the banner." "Bear thine own devil thyself," responded Hrafn. Then the earl said, "`Tis fittest that the beggar should bear the bag;'" and with that he took the banner from the staff and put it beneath his cloak. A bit after Asmund the White used to be slain, and then the earl used to be pierced through with a spear.[26]

Early 11th century Detail from the Bayeux Tapestry, showing a Norman knight sporting what appears to be a raven banner.

The military of King Cnut the Great of England, Norway and Denmark bore a raven banner created from white silk at the Battle of Ashingdon in 1016. The Encomium Emmae experiences that Cnut had

a banner which gave a wonderful omen. I'm neatly conscious that this may occasionally appear implausible to the reader, but nevertheless I insert it in my veracious work because it's true: This banner used to be woven of the cleanest and whitest silk and no image of any figures used to be found on it. In case of battle, alternatively, a raven used to be all the time to be seen, as if it had been woven into it. If the Danes had been going to win the fight, the raven seemed, beak large open, flapping its wings and stressed on its ft. If they have been going to be defeated, the raven didn't stir at all, and its limbs hung immobile.[27]

The Lives of Waltheof and his Father Sivard Digri (The Stout), the Earl of Northumberland, written by means of a monk of Crowland Abbey (most likely the English historian William of Ramsey), experiences that the Danish jarl of Northumbria, Sigurd, was once given a banner by way of an unidentified previous sage. The banner used to be referred to as Ravenlandeye.[28]

According to the Heimskringla, Harald Hardrada had a normal referred to as Landøyðan or "Land-waster." This is incessantly assumed to be a raven banner in keeping with the similarity of its title to Sigurd of Northumbria's "Ravenlandeye," despite the fact that there is no direct evidence connecting Harald's same old with ravens. In a dialog between Harald and King Sweyn II of Denmark,

Sveinn asked Haraldr which of his possessions of his he valued most highly. He replied that it was his banner (merki), Landøyðan. Thereupon Sveinn requested what distinctive feature it needed to be accounted so valuable. Haraldr spoke back that it used to be prophesied that victory can be his earlier than whom this banner was borne; and added that this were the case ever since he had received it. Thereupon Sveinn mentioned, "I shall believe that your flag has this virtue if you fight three battles with King Magnús, your kinsman, and are victorious in all."[29]

Years later, all the way through Harald's invasion of England, Harald fought a pitched battle in opposition to two English earls out of doors York. Harald's Saga relates that

when King Haraldr saw that the battle array of the English had come down along the trench correct opposite them, he had the trumpets blown and sharply instructed his males to the attack, raising his banner known as Landøyðan. And there so sturdy an assault was made via him that nothing held against it.[30]

Detail from the Bayeux tapestry, showing a damaged raven banner mendacity at the floor.

Harald's military flew the banner at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, where it used to be carried through a warrior named Frírek. After Harald used to be struck through an arrow and killed, his military fought fiercely for ownership of the banner, and a few of them went berserk in their frenzy to protected the flag. In the tip the "magic" of the banner failed, and the bulk of the Norwegian army used to be slaughtered, with only a few escaping to their ships.[31]

Other than the dragon banner of Olaf II of Norway, the Landøyðan of Harald Hardrada is the only early Norwegian royal usual described by Snorri Sturluson in the Heimskringla.[32]

In two panels of the famous Bayeux tapestry, standards are proven which appear to be raven banners. The Bayeux tapestry used to be commissioned by way of Bishop Odo, the half-brother of William the Conqueror; as one of the most combatants on the Battle of Hastings, Odo would had been accustomed to the standards carried into the combat. In one of the vital panels, depicting a Norman cavalry rate towards an English shield-wall, a charging Norman knight is depicted with a semicircular banner emblazoned with a standing black fowl. In a 2nd, depicting the deaths of Harold Godwinson's brothers, a triangular banner intently similar to that proven on Olaf Cuaran's coin lies damaged at the flooring. Scholars are divided as as to whether these are merely relics of the Normans' Scandinavian heritage (or for that matter, the Scandinavian influence in Anglo-Saxon England) or whether or not they mirror an undocumented Norse presence in either the Norman or English military.[33]

Modern reception

Despite claims that the Hrafnsmerki was "the first European flag in the New World", there is no indication that it was once ever carried as a universal flag of Scandinavians, and no supply assigns it to the Vinland settlers (or another Icelandic or Greenlandic staff).[34]

It remains to be used by some Danish military regiments, such as the shoulder sleeve insignia at the Guard Hussar Regiment's 1st Battalion 1st Tank Squadron.[35][36]

The coat of hands of the Norwegian Intelligence Service options two ravens representing Huginn and Muninn, the ravens offering the god Odin with data.[37][38]

In Shetland another type of the banner (black raven on an oblong, crimson field) is used as the symbol of Up Helly Aa, a competition that celebrates the Islands' Norse heritage.

The Eastern Counties RFU adopted the raven as its badge in 1926. It was once chosen as representing the heritage of the constituent counties – then Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex; now Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire – as part of the Danelaw.[39]

See also

Cultural depictions of ravens Fairy flag Hrafnsmál Jagdstaffel 18, which used a black raven insignia Uí Ímair Valravn


^ Hrafnhildur Bodvarsdottir (1976) p. 112. ^ Gylfaginning at «Norrøne Tekster og Kvad» Archived 2007-05-08 on the National and University Library of Iceland, Norway. ^ .mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em heart/9px .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//")appropriate 0.1em heart/9px .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//")correct 0.1em middle/9px .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,clear),url("//")appropriate 0.1em center/12px code.cs1-codecolour:inherit;background:inherit;border:none; .cs1-hidden-errorshow:none; .cs1-maintshow:none;colour:#33aa33; .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .quotation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"Rasmus B. Anderson's translation at the Northvegr foundation". ^ "Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Valkyries, Wish-Maidens, and Swan-Maids". ^ Examples of this happen in Þrymskviða, stanzas 3 and four, when Freya lends her hen fetch to Loki; and in the Valkyrie Kára of whom an account survives in Hrómundar saga Gripssonar. ^ a b Hjelmquist 142. ^ "Norna-Gests þáttur". ^ "Hardman § 6". ^ a b Hjelmquist 143. ^ Hjelmquist mentioning Fornmanna sögur III p. 148, in Hjelmquist 143. ^ In a poem by way of Þórðr in Bjarnar Saga Hitdælakappa, p. 67, cited in Hjelmquist 143. ^ Stanza 2, in Krákumál, cited in Hjelmquist 143. ^ Stanza 2 and three, in Haraldskvæði, cited in Hjelmquist 143. ^ in stanza Eight of Guðrúnarkviða II cited in Hjelmquist 144. ^ In stanza Forty five in Fjölsvinnsmál cited in Hjelmquist 144. ^ E.g., Woolf 63–81; Poole passim. ^ E.g., Gunnlaugs saga passim; Reykdæla saga good enough Víga-Skútu §13. ^ E.g., Hrafnkels saga passim. ^ E.g., Ketils saga hœngs § 3. ^ Annals of St Neots (878), ed. Dumville and Lapidge, p. 78. ^ Lukman 141 ^ Cf. Grimm's earlier edition and translation: [V]exillum quod reafan vocant. Dicunt enim quod tres sorores Hungari et Habbae, filiae videlicet Lodebrochi illud vexillum texuerunt, et totum paraverunt illud uno meridiano tempore. Dicunt etiam quod in omni bello, ubi praecederet idem signum, si victoriam adepturi essent, appareret in medio signi quasi corvus vivus volitans; sin vero vincendi in futuro fuissent, penderet directe nihil movens: et hoc saepe probatum est. "The daughters of Loðbrók had woven that banner and finished it during one single midday's time. It also is said that in any battle where the signum was borne before them, if they were to win victory one would see in the middle of the signum a living raven flying; but if they were about to be defeated, it hung straight and still." Grimm ch. 35 ^ Lukman, 141–42. ^ Herbert Appold Grueber, Handbook of the coins of Great Britain and Ireland within the British Museum. London/Oxford: British Museum. Dept. of Coins and Medals & the Clarendon Press, 1899, p. 20 (no. 117). ^ Orkneyinga Saga § 11. ^ Njal's Saga §156. ^ Trætteberg 549–55. ^ Lukman 148. The Crowland author comments on the title of the banner, "quod interpretatur corvus terrae terror," "which means Raven, terror of the land." ^ Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar § 22. ^ Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar § 85. ^ Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar § 88. ^ Cappelen 34–37. ^ Barraclough passim. It will have to, in fact, be noted that via 1066, the entire armies all for hostilities in the British Isles, Norwegian, English and Norman, have been at least nominally Christian. The Normans were in many ways, together with linguistically, rather a long way got rid of from their Norse origins. ^ Engene 1–2; see also Barraclough passim. ^ "Sleeve Insignia GHR". (in Danish). Retrieved 19 February 2016. ^ "1st Panzerbataljon". (in Danish). Retrieved 19 February 2016. ^ Norwegian Intelligence Service website, in Norwegian ^ Egeberg, Kristoffer (10 September 2008). "Mange vil bli spion". Dagbladet. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2020. ^ "About Us - History - The ECRU Raven".


The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. (English translation). Everymans Library, 1991. Barraclough, Captain E.M.C. "The Raven Flag". Flag Bulletin. Vol. X, No. 2–3. Winchester, MA: The Flag Research Center (FRC), 1969. Cappelen, Hans. "Litt heraldikk hos Snorre." Heraldisk tidsskrift No. 51, 1985 p. 34–37. Also published in Icelandic as "Heimskringla og skjaldarmerkin", Morgunbladir, Reykjavik 3.11.1985 Dumville, David and Michael Lapidge, eds. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Vol 17: The Annals of St. Neots with Vita Prima Sancti Neoti. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer. 1985. Engene, Jan Oskar. "The Raven Banner and America." NAVA News, Vol. XXIX, No. 5, 1996, pp. 1–2. Forte, Angelo, Richard Oram and Frederik Pedersen. Viking Empires. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-521-82992-5. Grimm, Jakob. Teutonic Mythology. 4 vols. Trans. James Steven Stallybras. New York: Dover, 2004. Hjelmquist, Theodor. "Naturskildringarna i den norröna diktningen". In Hildebrand, Hans (ed). Antikvarisk tidskrift för Sverige, Vol 12. Ivar Hæggströms boktryckeri, Stockholm. 1891. Hrafnhildur Bodvarsdottir. The Function of the Beasts of Battle in Old English Poetry. PhD Dissertation, 1976, State University of New York at Stony Brook. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International. 1989. Lukman, N. "The Raven Banner and the Changing Ravens: A Viking Miracle from Carolingian Court Poetry to Saga and Arthurian Romance." Classica et Medievalia 19 (1958): pp. 133–51. Njal's Saga. Trans. George DaSent. London, 1861. Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney. Trans. Pálsson, Hermann and Edwards, Paul (1978). London: Hogarth Press. ISBN 0-7012-0431-1. Republished 1981, Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044383-5. Poole, R. G. Viking Poems on War and Peace: A Study in Skaldic Narrative. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1991. Sturluson, Snorri. "King Harald's Saga." Heimskringla. Penguin Classics, 2005. Trætteberg, Hallvard. "Merke og Fløy." Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder, Vol. XI, Oslo, 1966, columns 549–555. Woolf, Rosemary. "The Ideal of Men Dying with their Lord in the Germania and in The Battle of Maldon." Anglo-Saxon England Vol. 5, 1976.

External hyperlinks

Media related to Ravens in heraldry at Wikimedia Commons

Viking Answer Lady on Viking flags Njal's Saga – Public domain version of translated through George DaSent, 1861, at The Raven Banner

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