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All About Contactors
When a relay is used to change a large amount of electric power through its contacts, it is designated via a special name: contactor. Contactors typically have more than one contacts, and the ones contacts are normally (however no longer all the time) normally-open, so that continual to the load is close off when the coil is de-energized.
Perhaps the most common industrial use for contactors is the control of electrical motors.
The best three contacts transfer the respective levels of the incoming 3-phase AC continual, normally a minimum of 480 Volts for motors 1 horsepower or greater. The lowest contact is an “auxiliary” touch which has a current rating a lot not up to that of the huge motor persistent contacts, however is actuated by way of the similar armature as the ability contacts.
The auxiliary contact is ceaselessly used in a relay logic circuit, or for every other a part of the motor control scheme, generally switching 120 Volt AC continual as an alternative of the motor voltage. One contactor can have several auxiliary contacts, both normally-open or normally-closed if required.Overload Heaters
The 3 “opposed-question-mark” fashioned units in collection with each and every phase going to the motor are known as overload warmers. Each “heater” part is a low-resistance strip of metal meant to heat up as the motor attracts present.
If the temperature of any of those heater elements reaches a important level (an identical to a reasonable overloading of the motor), a normally-closed transfer touch (not proven in the diagram) will spring open. This normally-closed contact is most often connected in collection with the relay coil, in order that when it opens the relay will automatically de-energize, thereby shutting off continual to the motor.
We will see extra of this overload protection wiring within the next bankruptcy.
Overload warmers are meant to offer overcurrent coverage for massive electrical motors, in contrast to circuit breakers and fuses which serve the primary objective of providing overcurrent coverage for persistent conductors.Functions of Overload Heaters
Overload heater serve as is often misunderstood. They don't seem to be fuses; that is, it isn't their serve as to burn open and at once spoil the circuit as a fuse is designed to do. Rather, overload warmers are designed to thermally mimic the heating function of the actual electrical motor to be protected.
All motors have thermal characteristics, including the volume of warmth energy generated by means of resistive dissipation (I2R), the thermal switch traits of warmth “performed” to the cooling medium in the course of the metal body of the motor, the bodily mass and specific heat of the materials constituting the motor, and so on.
These traits are mimicked by way of the overload heater on a miniature scale: when the motor heats up toward its important temperature, so will the heater towards its critical temperature, ideally on the identical price and way curve.
Thus, the overload contact, in sensing heater temperature with a thermomechanical mechanism, will sense an analog of the true motor. If the overload touch trips due to over the top heater temperature, it's going to be a sign that the true motor has reached its critical temperature (or, would have carried out so in a short while).
After tripping, the warmers are meant to calm down at the same rate and means curve as the actual motor, in order that they point out an accurate proportion of the motor’s thermal situation, and won't allow chronic to be re-applied till the motor is really able for start-up again.Three-Phase Electric Motor Contactor
Shown here is a contactor for a three-phase electrical motor, installed on a panel as part of an electrical keep watch over system at a municipal water remedy plant:
Three-phase, 480 volt AC chronic comes into the 3 normally-open contacts at the best of the contactor by means of screw terminals categorized “L1,” “L2,” and “L3” (The “L2” terminal is hidden at the back of a square-shaped “snubber” circuit related across the contactor’s coil terminals). Power to the motor exits the overload heater meeting at the backside of this tool via screw terminals classified “T1,” “T2,” and “T3.”
The overload heater gadgets themselves are black, square-shaped blocks with the label “W34,” indicating a particular thermal reaction for a definite horsepower and temperature score of the electric motor.
If an electrical motor of differing persistent and/or temperature ratings have been to be substituted for the only at the moment in provider, the overload heater units would must be replaced with devices having a thermal response appropriate for the new motor. The motor manufacturer may give information on the appropriate heater units to make use of.
A white push button positioned between the “T1” and “T2” line heaters serves so to manually reset the normally-closed switch touch again to its commonplace state after having been tripped by means of excessive heater temperature.
Wire connections to the “overload” switch touch is also noticed at the lower-right of the photograph, close to a label studying “NC” (normally-closed). On this particular overload unit, a small “window” with the label “Tripped” indicates a tripped condition by means of a colored flag. In this photograph, there is not any “tripped” condition, and the indicator seems clear.Heater Elements as a Crude Current Shunt Resistor
As a footnote, heater components may be used as a crude current shunt resistor for figuring out whether or now not a motor is drawing current when the contactor is closed. There could also be instances while you’re operating on a motor control circuit, the place the contactor is located far clear of the motor itself.
How have you learnt if the motor is eating power when the contactor coil is energized and the armature has been pulled in? If the motor’s windings are burnt open, you could be sending voltage to the motor in the course of the contactor contacts, but nonetheless, have 0 present, and thus no motion from the motor shaft.
If a clamp-on ammeter isn’t to be had to measure line present, you can take your multimeter and measure millivoltage across each and every heater element: if the present is zero, the voltage around the heater will likely be zero (unless the heater component itself is open, through which case the voltage across it's going to be large); if there is present going to the motor through that phase of the contactor, you'll learn a undeniable millivoltage across that heater:
This is a particularly useful trick to use for troubleshooting 3-phase AC motors, to see if one part winding is burnt open or disconnected, which will lead to a abruptly harmful situation known as “single-phasing.”
If one of the crucial strains carrying persistent to the motor is open, it will not have any present through it (as indicated by a zero.00 mV studying across its heater), even though the opposite two lines will (as indicated via small quantities of voltage dropped across the respective heaters).
REVIEW:A contactor is a big relay, typically used to modify current to an electrical motor or any other high-power load. Large electric motors can be safe from overcurrent harm via the usage of overload heaters and overload contacts. If the series-connected warmers get too sizzling from excessive current, the normally-closed overload touch will open, de-energizing the contactor sending chronic to the motor.