Black Komodo Dragon

King of the lizards: There are over 3,000 lizard species, but the Komodo dragon wins the prize for being the most important dwelling lizard on the planet! It is one of those observe lizard, an historical staff of reptiles with ancestors that date back more than one hundred million years. Komodo dragons were unknown by means of western scientists until 1912, and their not unusual title came from rumors of a large dragon-like lizardThe Komodo Dragon is an adequate attempt at a black ipa. The beer pours an opaque black with tan head this is leaving a lace. The odor is faint with a little bittering hop and slight espresso present. The taste is somewhat well balanced and finishes somewhat bitter. The roasted malt is more prevalent than any flavor of hop.In 2007, a dragon killed an 8-year-old boy on Komodo Island, marking the primary deadly assault on a human in 33 years, the Guardian reported. The assault took place in March's dry season, so rangersThere is one new characteristic added since Komodo 13.3, "Armageddon" mode, which tells Dragon that White (or Black) must win, draws are scored as losses for that color. When attracts are counted as losses for White, understanding this improves Dragon's performance as White through about 30 elo in step with our tests.TheKomodo Dragon is an animal that was at the start released on October 11, 2017 at the Sapphire Shop for 150 Sapphires. It may be obtained in the course of the Komodo Dragon Bundle for 250 Sapphires. 1 Default Appearance 2 History 3 Actions 4 Trivia 5 Gallery 5.1 Graphics 5.2 The default appearance of the Komodo Dragon is a light pink higher body, light lavender purple spots at the komodo's back

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The Most Infamous Komodo Dragon Attacks of the Past 10

Primitive Boy Saves Komodo Dragon From Python Attack - Most Amazing Wild Animal AttackNote: This Video Is Only For Entertainment Purpose.if you happen to aren't glad...Komodo Dragon (male) - Varanus komodoensis The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), sometimes called the Komodo monitor, is a large species of lizard discovered in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang and Gili Dasami. A member of the observe lizard circle of relatives (Varanidae), it is the largest living species of lizard, rising to aThe komodo dragon has the smallest vary of any of the arena's massive carnivores, discovered best on the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Gili Motang, and Flores. It may be the main predator of those islands and subsequently serves a vital position in nature.Female Komodo dragons lay up to 30 eggs, which they're going to guard for a number of months. Babies are greenish with yellow and black bands but transform forged gray to reddish-brown as they age. Young dragons...KOMODO DRAGON Organic. Black Cat Coffee. Products. Organic Coffee. KOMODO DRAGON Organic. KOMODO DRAGON Organic $ 16.95. Notes of brown sugar, cedar and dark chocolate. Very low acidity and a high frame. Coffee Type: Roast Clear: KOMODO DRAGON Organic amount. Add to cart

Komodo dragon

Jump to navigation Jump to go looking For the similarly-named internet browser, see Comodo Dragon.

Komodo dragonTemporal vary: Pliocene–Holocene,[1]3.8–0 Ma PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J Ok Pg N ↓ A specimen in Komodo National Park, Indonesia Conservation status Vulnerable (IUCN 2.3)[2] Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Family: Varanidae Genus: Varanus Subgenus: Varanus Species: V. komodoensis Binomial identify Varanus komodoensisOuwens, 1912[3] Komodo dragon distribution

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), sometimes called the Komodo observe, is a species of large lizard endemic to the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, and Gili Motang. A member of the track lizard family Varanidae, it's the greatest extant species of lizard, growing to a maximum period of three metres (10 toes) in rare cases, and weighing up to approximately 70 kilograms (150 lb).

As a end result in their size, those lizards dominate the ecosystems by which they reside. Komodo dragons hunt and ambush prey including invertebrates, birds, and mammals. It has been claimed that they have a venomous bite; there are two glands in the lower jaw which secrete several poisonous proteins. The organic significance of these proteins is disputed, but the glands had been shown to secrete an anticoagulant. Komodo dragons' staff habits in looking is exceptional within the reptile world. The nutrition of Komodo dragons basically is composed of Javan rusa (Rusa timorensis), despite the fact that additionally they devour considerable quantities of carrion. Komodo dragons additionally on occasion assault people.

Mating starts between May and August, and the eggs are laid in September; as many as 20 eggs are deposited at a time in an deserted megapode nest or in a self-dug nesting hollow. The eggs are incubated for seven to eight months, hatching in April, when bugs are maximum abundant. Young Komodo dragons are vulnerable and due to this fact reside in trees, secure from predators, and cannibalistic adults. They take Eight to 9 years to mature and are estimated to are living as much as 30 years.

Komodo dragons were first recorded by Western scientists in 1910. Their huge length and fearsome reputation make them in style zoo exhibits. In the wild, their range has reduced in size due to human activities, and they are listed as susceptible via the IUCN. They are secure underneath Indonesian regulation, and Komodo National Park was once founded in 1980 to assist coverage efforts.

Taxonomic history


Komodo dragons have been first documented by means of Europeans in 1910, when rumors of a "land crocodile" reached Lieutenant van Steyn van Hensbroek of the Dutch colonial management.[4] Widespread notoriety got here after 1912, when Peter Ouwens, the director of the Zoological Museum at Bogor, Java, revealed a paper at the subject after receiving a photo and a skin from the lieutenant, as well as two other specimens from a collector.[3]

The first two live Komodo dragons to arrive in Europe were exhibited within the Reptile House at London Zoo when it opened in 1927.[5]Joan Beauchamp Procter made one of the most earliest observations of these animals in captivity and she demonstrated their behaviour at a Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London in 1928.[6]

The Komodo dragon was once the driving factor for an expedition to Komodo Island by W. Douglas Burden in 1926. After returning with 12 preserved specimens and two reside ones, this expedition supplied the inspiration for the 1933 movie King Kong.[7] It was additionally Burden who coined the typical title "Komodo dragon".[8] Three of his specimens were stuffed and are still on display in the American Museum of Natural History.[9]

The Dutch island management, knowing the restricted number of people in the wild, soon outlawed sport looking and closely restricted the collection of folks taken for medical study. Collecting expeditions ground to a halt with the prevalence of World War II, no longer resuming until the Fifties and 1960s, when research examined the Komodo dragon's feeding behavior, replica, and frame temperature. At around this time, an expedition used to be planned in which a long-term learn about of the Komodo dragon can be undertaken. This task used to be given to the Auffenberg circle of relatives, who stayed on Komodo Island for 11 months in 1969. During their keep, Walter Auffenberg and his assistant Putra Sastrawan captured and tagged greater than 50 Komodo dragons.[10]

Research from the Auffenberg expedition proved to be greatly influential in elevating Komodo dragons in captivity.[11] Research after that of the Auffenberg circle of relatives has shed more gentle on the nature of the Komodo dragon, with biologists corresponding to Claudio Ciofi continuing to review the creatures.[12]

Etymology The Komodo dragon, as depicted on the 50 rupiah coin, issued by Indonesia

The Komodo dragon is also once in a while known as the Komodo monitor or the Komodo Island monitor in scientific literature,[13] although this identify is unusual. To the natives of Komodo Island, it's referred to as ora, buaya darat ('land crocodile'), or biawak raksasa ('large track').[14][4]

Evolutionary historical past

The evolutionary development of the Komodo dragon began with the genus Varanus, which originated in Asia about 40 million years in the past and migrated to Australia, the place it developed into massive bureaucracy (the largest of all being the lately extinct Megalania), helped by means of the absence of competing placental carnivorans. Around 15 million years in the past, a collision between the continental landmasses of Australia and Southeast Asia allowed these better varanids to transport again into what is now the Indonesian archipelago, extending their range as a long way east because the island of Timor.

The Komodo dragon is believed to have differentiated from its Australian ancestors about 4 million years in the past. However, recent fossil evidence from Queensland suggests the Komodo dragon actually developed in Australia, prior to spreading to Indonesia.[1][15]

Dramatic decreasing of sea stage right through the remaining glacial period uncovered intensive stretches of continental shelf that the Komodo dragon colonised, turning into remoted in their provide island range as sea ranges rose afterwards.[1][4] Fossils of extinct Pliocene species of identical length to the fashionable Komodo dragon, similar to Varanus sivalensis, were present in Eurasia as neatly, indicating that they fared well even in environments containing competition, comparable to mammalian carnivores, till the climate change and extinction events that marked the beginning of the Pleistocene.[16]

Genetic research of mitochondrial DNA displays the Komodo dragon to be the nearest relative (sister taxon) of the lace monitor (V. varius), with their common ancestor diverging from a lineage that gave upward thrust to the crocodile monitor (Varanus salvadorii) of New Guinea.[17][18][19]

A 2021 learn about had shown that all over the Miocene, Komodo dragons had hybridized with the ancestors of the Australian sand observe. Thus offering further proof that the Komodo dragon had as soon as inhabited Australia.[20][21][22]


Specimen in profile

In the wild, adult Komodo dragons usually weigh around 70 kg (150 lb), even though captive specimens frequently weigh extra.[23] According to Guinness World Records, a median adult male will weigh 79 to 91 kg (174 to 201 lb) and measure 2.59 m (8.5 feet), whilst a median feminine will weigh 68 to 73 kg (One hundred fifty to 161 lb) and measure 2.29 m (7.5 ft).[24] The biggest verified wild specimen used to be 3.13 m (10.3 ft) long and weighed 166 kg (366 lb), together with its undigested meals.[4]

Closeup of the outside

The Komodo dragon has a tail as long as its body, as well as about 60 steadily changed, serrated teeth that may measure as much as 2.5 cm (1 in) in period. Its saliva is incessantly blood-tinged because its enamel are nearly completely coated by way of gingival tissue that is naturally lacerated right through feeding.[25] It also has a protracted, yellow, deeply forked tongue.[4] Komodo dragon pores and skin is bolstered by means of armoured scales, which include tiny bones referred to as osteoderms that serve as as a type of herbal chain-mail.[26][27] The only spaces lacking osteoderms at the head of the adult Komodo dragon are around the eyes, nostrils, mouth margins, and pineal eye, a light-sensing organ at the most sensible of the head. Where lizards in most cases have one or two varying patterns or shapes of osteoderms, komodo's have four: rosette, platy, dendritic, and vermiform.[28] This rugged cover makes Komodo dragon pores and skin a poor source of leather-based. Additionally, these osteoderms transform more intensive and variable in shape because the Komodo dragon ages, ossifying more extensively because the lizard grows. These osteoderms are absent in hatchlings and juveniles, indicating that the herbal armor develops as a made of age and festival between adults for protection in intraspecific fight over food and friends.[29]

Senses ">Play media Komodo dragon the usage of its tongue to pattern the air

As with different varanids, Komodo dragons have only a unmarried ear bone, the stapes, for shifting vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. This association means they're likely restricted to sounds within the 400 to two,000 hertz range, in comparison to humans who listen between 20 and 20,000 hertz.[4][30] They had been formerly considered deaf when a learn about reported no agitation in wild Komodo dragons in keeping with whispers, raised voices, or shouts. This used to be disputed when London Zoological Garden worker Joan Procter skilled a captive specimen to return out to feed on the sound of her voice, even when she may just not be noticed.[31]

The Komodo dragon can see items as a long way away as 300 m (980 toes), but as a result of its retinas most effective comprise cones, it is concept to have poor night time vision. It can distinguish colors, but has deficient visual discrimination of desk bound items.[32]

As with many different reptiles, the Komodo dragon essentially is determined by its tongue to detect, taste, and scent stimuli, with the vomeronasal sense the use of the Jacobson's organ, rather than the usage of the nostrils.[33] With the help of a positive wind and its addiction of swinging its head from side to side because it walks, a Komodo dragon could possibly hit upon carrion from 4–9.5 km (2.5–5.9 mi) away.[32] It best has a few taste buds in the back of its throat.[33] Its scales, a few of which might be strengthened with bone, have sensory plaques hooked up to nerves to facilitate its sense of touch. The scales around the ears, lips, chin, and soles of the feet could have three or more sensory plaques.[25]

Behaviour and ecology

Male komodo dragons preventing

The Komodo dragon prefers sizzling and dry puts and generally lives in dry, open grassland, savanna, and tropical woodland at low elevations. As an ectotherm, it's maximum energetic within the day, despite the fact that it reveals some nocturnal process. Komodo dragons are solitary, coming together best to reproduce and consume. They are able to running all of a sudden briefly sprints as much as 20 km/h (12 mph), diving up to 4.5 m (15 ft), and hiking timber proficiently when young through use in their strong claws.[23] To catch out-of-reach prey, the Komodo dragon may stand on its hind legs and use its tail as a fortify.[31] As it matures, its claws are used basically as weapons, as its great length makes hiking impractical.[25]

For safe haven, the Komodo dragon digs holes that can measure from 1 to three m (3.Three to 9.8 ft) large with its robust forelimbs and claws.[34] Because of its huge size and addiction of snoozing in those burrows, it is in a position to conserve body warmth during the evening and minimise its basking duration the morning after.[35] The Komodo dragon hunts within the afternoon, however remains within the coloration all over the freshest a part of the day.[8] These special resting puts, most often located on ridges with cool sea breezes, are marked with droppings and are cleared of vegetation. They serve as strategic places from which to ambush deer.[36]

Diet Komodo dragon on Rinca feeding on a water buffalo corpse

As a end result in their size, Komodo dragons dominate the ecosystems in which they live.[37] They are carnivores, despite the fact that they have been regarded as as eating mostly carrion,[38] they'll regularly ambush live prey with a stealthy way. When appropriate prey arrives near a dragon's ambush web site, it will suddenly fee on the animal at prime speeds and go for the bottom or the throat.[25]

Komodo dragons do not deliberately allow the prey to escape with deadly accidents however attempt to kill prey outright the use of a combination of lacerating injury and blood loss. They had been recorded as killing wild pigs inside seconds,[39] and observations of Komodo dragons tracking prey for lengthy distances are likely misinterpreted instances of prey escaping an assault earlier than succumbing to infection.[40] Komodo dragons had been noticed knocking down massive pigs and deer with their strong tails.[41][39] They are in a position to locate carcasses the usage of their keen sense of scent, which is able to find a useless or dying animal from a spread of as much as 9.5 km (5.9 mi).

Komodo dragons devour by means of tearing massive chunks of flesh and swallowing them entire while maintaining the carcass down with their forelegs. For smaller prey up to the size of a goat, their loosely articulated jaws, flexible skulls, and expandable stomachs allow them to swallow prey whole. The undigested vegetable contents of a prey animal's abdomen and intestines are most often have shyed away from.[36] Copious amounts of crimson saliva the Komodo dragons produce assist to lubricate the meals, but swallowing continues to be an extended procedure (15–20 mins to swallow a goat). A Komodo dragon may attempt to accelerate the method by means of ramming the carcass in opposition to a tree to power it down its throat, every now and then ramming so forcefully that the tree is knocked down.[36] A small tube beneath the tongue that connects to the lungs permits it to breathe while swallowing.[25]

After consuming up to 80% of its frame weight in a single meal,[37] it drags itself to a sunny location to hurry digestion, as the food could rot and poison the dragon if left undigested in its stomach for too long. Because in their gradual metabolism, large dragons can live on on as few as 12 meals a yr.[25] After digestion, the Komodo dragon regurgitates a mass of horns, hair, and teeth referred to as the gastric pellet, which is covered in malodorous mucus. After regurgitating the gastric pellet, it rubs its face within the dirt or on timber to get rid of the mucus, suggesting it does now not relish the scent of its own excretions.[25]

Komodo excrement has a dark portion, which is stool, and a whitish portion, which is urate, the nitrogenous end-product in their digestion procedure

The eating habits of Komodo dragons apply a hierarchy, with the bigger animals normally consuming prior to the smaller ones. The biggest male in most cases asserts his dominance and the smaller men display their submission by use of body language and rumbling hisses. Dragons of equal length may lodge to "wrestling". Losers in most cases retreat, though they've been identified to be killed and eaten by victors.[42][43]

The Komodo dragon's nutrition is wide-ranging, and comprises invertebrates, other reptiles (including smaller Komodo dragons), birds, bird eggs, small mammals, monkeys, wild boar, goats, deer, horses, and water buffalo.[44] Young Komodos will eat bugs, eggs, geckos, and small mammals, whilst adults choose to seek huge mammals.[38] Occasionally, they assault and chunk people. Sometimes they consume human corpses, digging up our bodies from shallow graves.[31] This dependancy of raiding graves led to the villagers of Komodo to transport their graves from sandy to clay ground, and pile rocks on best of them, to deter the lizards.[36] The Komodo dragon could have evolved to feed at the extinct dwarf elephant Stegodon that once lived on Flores, in step with evolutionary biologist Jared Diamond.[45]

The Komodo dragon drinks by way of sucking water into its mouth by way of buccal pumping (a process extensively utilized for respiratory), lifting its head, and letting the water run down its throat.[39]


Although previous studies proposed that Komodo dragon saliva contains various highly septic bacteria that may assist to convey down prey,[42][46] research in 2013 urged that the micro organism within the mouths of Komodo dragons are strange and similar to those present in different carnivores. Komodo dragons have just right mouth hygiene. To quote Bryan Fry: "After they are done feeding, they will spend 10 to 15 minutes lip-licking and rubbing their head in the leaves to clean their mouth ... Unlike people have been led to believe, they do not have chunks of rotting flesh from their meals on their teeth, cultivating bacteria." Nor do Komodo dragons stay up for prey to die and track it at a distance, as vipers do; observations of them looking deer, boar and in some cases buffalo disclose that they kill prey in not up to part an hour.[40][47]

The remark of prey death of sepsis would then be explained by means of the herbal instinct of water buffalos, who don't seem to be local to the islands where the Komodo dragon lives, to run into water after escaping an assault. The warm, faeces-filled water would then purpose the infections.[40] The study used samples from 16 captive dragons (10 adults and 6 neonates) from three US zoos.[48]

Antibacterial immune factor

Researchers have remoted a formidable antibacterial peptide from the blood plasma of Komodo dragons, VK25. Based on their research of this peptide, they've synthesized a short peptide dubbed DRGN-1 and examined it against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Preliminary result of these tests display that DRGN-1 is efficacious in killing drug-resistant bacterial traces and even some fungi. It has the added noticed good thing about significantly promoting wound healing in each uninfected and blended biofilm infected wounds.[49]

Venom Komodo dragon stalking a Timor deer

In late 2005, researchers at the University of Melbourne speculated the perentie (Varanus giganteus), other species of monitors, and agamids may be relatively venomous. The staff believes the immediate effects of bites from these lizards have been caused by mild envenomation. Bites on human digits by way of a lace observe (V. varius), a Komodo dragon, and a spotted tree observe (V. scalaris) all produced identical results: speedy swelling, localised disruption of blood clotting, and capturing ache as much as the elbow, with some symptoms lasting for several hours.[50]

In 2009, the similar researchers published additional evidence demonstrating Komodo dragons possess a venomous bite. MRI scans of a preserved skull showed the presence of two glands in the decrease jaw. The researchers extracted the sort of glands from the head of a terminally sick dragon in the Singapore Zoological Gardens, and located it secreted a number of different poisonous proteins. The known functions of those proteins include inhibition of blood clotting, lowering of blood power, muscle paralysis, and the induction of hypothermia, resulting in shock and loss of consciousness in envenomated prey.[51][52] As a results of the invention, the former principle that micro organism have been chargeable for the deaths of Komodo victims used to be disputed.[53]

Other scientists have said that this allegation of venom glands "has had the effect of underestimating the variety of complex roles played by oral secretions in the biology of reptiles, produced a very narrow view of oral secretions and resulted in misinterpretation of reptilian evolution". According to these scientists "reptilian oral secretions contribute to many biological roles other than to quickly dispatch prey". These researchers concluded that, "Calling all in this clade venomous implies an overall potential danger that does not exist, misleads in the assessment of medical risks, and confuses the biological assessment of squamate biochemical systems".[54] Evolutionary biologist Schwenk says that although the lizards have venom-like proteins of their mouths they may be the use of them for a different function, and he doubts venom is important to explain the effect of a Komodo dragon chew, arguing that surprise and blood loss are the principle elements.[55][56]

Reproduction Komodo dragons mating

Mating happens between May and August, with the eggs laid in September.[4][57] During this era, males struggle over females and territory by way of grappling with one some other upon their hind legs, with the loser eventually being pinned to the ground. These men would possibly vomit or defecate when making ready for the combat.[31] The winner of the struggle will then flick his lengthy tongue on the feminine to gain information about her receptivity.[37] Females are hostile and resist with their claws and tooth all the way through the early stages of courtship. Therefore, the male should absolutely restrain the female during coitus to steer clear of being hurt. Other courtship shows include males rubbing their chins at the feminine, onerous scratches to the again, and licking.[58] Copulation occurs when the male inserts one in all his hemipenes into the feminine's cloaca.[32] Komodo dragons is also monogamous and shape "pair bonds", an extraordinary conduct for lizards.[31]

Female Komodos lay their eggs from August to September and would possibly use several types of locality; in one find out about, 60% laid their eggs within the nests of orange-footed scrubfowl (a moundbuilder or megapode), 20% on ground degree and 20% in hilly spaces.[59] The women folk make many camouflage nests/holes to forestall other dragons from consuming the eggs.[60] Clutches comprise a median of 20 eggs, which have an incubation period of 7–8 months.[31] Hatching is an laborious effort for the neonates, which escape in their eggshells with an egg teeth that falls off prior to long. After cutting themselves out, the hatchlings might lie of their eggshells for hours prior to beginning to dig out of the nest. They are born fairly defenseless and are prone to predation.[42] Sixteen youngsters from a single nest had been on moderate 46.5 cm lengthy and weighed 105.1 grams.[59]

Young Komodo dragons spend much in their first few years in bushes, where they are moderately protected from predators, including cannibalistic adults, as juvenile dragons make up 10% in their diets.[31] The addiction of cannibalism may be high quality in maintaining the huge size of adults, as medium-sized prey at the islands is rare.[41] When the young manner a kill, they roll around in faecal subject and rest in the intestines of eviscerated animals to deter those hungry adults.[31] Komodo dragons take roughly 8 to Nine years to mature, and may are living for up to 30 years.[57]

Parthenogenesis Main article: Parthenogenesis Parthenogenetic baby Komodo dragon, Chester Zoo, England

A Komodo dragon at London Zoo named Sungai laid a seize of eggs in past due 2005 after being separated from a male corporate for more than two years. Scientists initially assumed she had been able to store sperm from her previous come across with a male, an adaptation referred to as superfecundation.[61] On 20 December 2006, it was once reported that Flora, a captive Komodo dragon dwelling in the Chester Zoo in England, was once the second one recognized Komodo dragon to have laid unfertilised eggs: she laid 11 eggs, and 7 of them hatched, all of them male.[62] Scientists at Liverpool University in England carried out genetic tests on 3 eggs that collapsed after being moved to an incubator, and verified Flora had by no means been in physical contact with a male dragon. After Flora's eggs' condition have been came upon, trying out showed Sungai's eggs were also produced without outside fertilization.[63] On 31 January 2008, the Sedgwick County Zoo in Wichita, Kansas, become the primary zoo within the Americas to file parthenogenesis in Komodo dragons. The zoo has two adult female Komodo dragons, considered one of which laid about 17 eggs on 19–20 May 2007. Only two eggs were incubated and hatched because of space issues; the first hatched on 31 January 2008, whilst the second hatched on 1 February. Both hatchlings have been men.[64][65]

Komodo dragons have the ZW chromosomal sex-determination gadget, versus the mammalian XY machine. Male progeny turn out Flora's unfertilized eggs had been haploid (n) and doubled their chromosomes later to grow to be diploid (2n) (by means of being fertilized through a polar frame, or via chromosome duplication with out cellular division), moderately than through her laying diploid eggs by one of the meiosis reduction-divisions in her ovaries failing. When a feminine Komodo dragon (with ZW intercourse chromosomes) reproduces in this way, she provides her progeny with just one chromosome from each of her pairs of chromosomes, including simplest one in every of her two intercourse chromosomes. This unmarried set of chromosomes is duplicated in the egg, which develops parthenogenetically. Eggs receiving a Z chromosome turn into ZZ (male); those receiving a W chromosome transform WW and fail to broaden,[66][67] which means that most effective men are produced by way of parthenogenesis on this species.

It has been hypothesised that this reproductive adaptation permits a unmarried feminine to enter an remoted ecological niche (akin to an island) and via parthenogenesis produce male offspring, thereby setting up a sexually reproducing inhabitants (by means of replica with her offspring that can lead to both male and female younger).[66] Despite some great benefits of such an adaptation, zoos are cautioned that parthenogenesis is also unfavorable to genetic diversity.[68]

Incidents with humans

Humans dealing with a komodo dragon

Attacks on humans are rare, but Komodo dragons were accountable for several human fatalities, in both the wild and in captivity. According to information from Komodo National Park spanning a 38-year period between 1974 and 2012, there have been 24 reported attacks on humans, five of them fatal. Most of the sufferers had been local villagers living around the nationwide park.[69] Reports of assaults come with:[70]

1974: A visiting Swiss vacationer, Baron Rudolf Reding von Bibiregg, who disappeared on Komodo Island, could have been killed and eaten via Komodo dragons.[71] 2001: A Komodo dragon attacked Phil Bronstein, an investigative journalist and former husband of actress Sharon Stone, within the Los Angeles Zoo.[70] 2007: A Komodo dragon killed an 8-year-old boy on Komodo Island.[70] 2008: A gaggle of five scuba divers had been stranded on the seashore of Rinca Island, and were attacked by means of Komodo dragons. After two days, the divers' ordeal ended once they have been picked up by means of an Indonesian rescue boat.[70] 2009: Muhamad Anwar, a 31-year-old Komodo Island local, was killed by two dragons after he fell from a tree when he used to be selecting sugar apples.[70] 2009: Maen, a countrywide park information stationed on Rinca Island, used to be ambushed and bitten by a Komodo dragon which had walked into his workplace and lay below his desk. Despite struggling some accidents, the guide survived.[70] May 2017: Lon Lee Alle, a 50-year-old Singaporean vacationer (or Loh Lee Aik, stated to be 68), was once attacked by a Komodo dragon on Komodo Island.[72] The sufferer survived the assault, however his left leg was once seriously injured.[73] November 2017: Yosef Paska, a neighborhood development employee, used to be attacked on Rinca Island and taken to Labuan Bajo by means of speedboat for treatment.[74]


Komodo dragons on Rinca

The Komodo dragon is classified by way of the IUCN as a vulnerable species and is listed at the IUCN Red List.[2] The species' sensitivity to herbal and man-made threats has long been recognized by conservationists, zoological societies, and the Indonesian executive. Komodo National Park was once based in 1980 to offer protection to Komodo dragon populations on islands together with Komodo, Rinca, and Padar.[75] Later, the Wae Wuul and Wolo Tado Reserves have been opened on Flores to help Komodo dragon conservation.[12]

Komodo dragons typically steer clear of encounters with people. Juveniles are very shy and will flee quickly right into a hideout if a human comes nearer than about One hundred metres (330 toes). Older animals can even retreat from humans from a shorter distance away. If cornered, they will react aggressively through gaping their mouth, hissing, and swinging their tail. If they're disturbed additional, they are going to assault and chew. Although there are anecdotes of unprovoked Komodo dragons attacking or preying on people, a lot of these experiences are either not reputable or have due to this fact been interpreted as defensive bites. Only only a few instances are actually the results of unprovoked assaults by bizarre individuals who misplaced their concern of humans.[42]

Volcanic job, earthquakes, loss of habitat, fire,[25][12] tourism, lack of prey because of poaching, and illegal poaching of the dragons themselves have all contributed to the susceptible status of the Komodo dragon. Under Appendix I of CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), industrial industry of Komodo dragon skins or specimens is against the law.[76][77] Despite this, there are occasional reports of illegal attempts to industry in are living Komodo dragons. The most recent try was once in March 2019, when Indonesian police in the East Java town of Surabaya reported that a legal community were stuck trying to smuggle 41 younger Komodo dragons out of Indonesia. The plan was once stated to include shipping the animals to a number of other nations in Southeast Asia via Singapore. It was once was hoping that the animals may well be offered for as much as 500 million rupiah (round US,000) each.[78] It was once believed that the Komodo dragons were smuggled out of East Nusa Tenggara province in the course of the port at Ende in central Flores.[79]

In 2013, the entire population of Komodo dragons in the wild was assessed as 3,222 individuals, declining to a few,092 in 2014 and 3,014 in 2015. Populations remained slightly stable on the larger islands (Komodo and Rinca), but lowered on smaller islands akin to Nusa Kode and Gili Motang, most probably because of diminishing prey availability.[80] On Padar, a former inhabitants of Komodo dragons has recently grow to be extinct, of which the remaining people have been seen in 1975.[81] It is broadly assumed that the Komodo dragon died out on Padar following a major decline of populations of enormous ungulate prey, for which poaching was once possibly accountable.[82]

In captivity ">Play media Komodo dragon in San Diego Zoo (video clip)

Komodo dragons have long been sought-after zoo points of interest, where their length and popularity lead them to widespread exhibits. They are, then again, uncommon in zoos because they are susceptible to an infection and parasitic disease if captured from the wild, and do not readily reproduce in captivity.[14] The first Komodo dragons had been displayed at London Zoo in 1927. A Komodo dragon was exhibited in 1934 within the United States at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., however it lived for simplest two years. More makes an attempt to show off Komodo dragons were made, but the lifespan of the animals proved very short, averaging 5 years in the National Zoological Park. Studies were achieved through Walter Auffenberg, that have been documented in his book The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor, ultimately allowed for extra a hit management and breeding of the dragons in captivity.[11] As of May 2009, there have been 35 North American, 13 European, one Singaporean, two African, and two Australian institutions which housed captive Komodo dragons.[83]

Quite a few behaviors had been seen from captive specimens. Most folks change into rather tame inside of a little while,[84][85] and are capable of recognising individual people and discriminating between familiar and unfamiliar keepers.[86] Komodo dragons have also been noticed to engage in play with quite a lot of gadgets, together with shovels, cans, plastic rings, and footwear. This conduct does no longer seem to be "food-motivated predatory behavior".[37][4][87]

Even apparently docile dragons might change into unpredictably competitive, particularly when the animal's territory is invaded through somebody unfamiliar. In June 2001, a Komodo dragon critically injured Phil Bronstein, the then-husband of actress Sharon Stone, when he entered its enclosure on the Los Angeles Zoo after being invited in via its keeper. Bronstein was once bitten on his bare foot, because the keeper had advised him to take off his white footwear and socks, which the keeper stated may doubtlessly excite the Komodo dragon as they have been the same colour because the white rats the zoo fed the dragon.[88][89] Although he survived, Bronstein had to have several tendons in his foot reattached surgically.[90]

See additionally

Asian water monitor Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum and Reptile Park Papua observe (Varanus salvadorii), a monitor lizard frequently asserted to be the longest extant lizard Toxicofera, a hypothetical clade encompassing all venomous reptiles, together with the Komodo dragon Varanus priscus (formerly known as Megalania prisca), an enormous extinct varanid lizard of Pleistocene Australia


^ a b c .mw-parser-output .quotation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")correct 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,clear),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")correct 0.1em heart/9px .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:lend a .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//")appropriate 0.1em heart/12px code.cs1-codecolour:inherit;background:inherit;border:none; .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;colour:#33aa33; .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .quotation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritHocknull SA, Piper PJ, van den Bergh GD, Due RA, Morwood MJ, Kurniawan I (2009). "Dragon's Paradise Lost: Palaeobiogeography, Evolution and Extinction of the Largest-Ever Terrestrial Lizards (Varanidae)". PLOS ONE. 4 (9): e7241. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7241H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007241. PMC 2748693. PMID 19789642. ^ a b World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Varanus komodoensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T22884A9396736. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T22884A9396736.en. ^ a b Ouwens, P. A. (1912). "On a large Varanus species from the island of Komodo". Bulletin de l'Institut Botanique de Buitenzorg. 2. 6: 1–3. Retrieved 6 March 2017. ^ a b c d e f g h Ciofi, Claudio (March 1999). "The Komodo Dragon". Scientific American. 280 (3): 84–91. Bibcode:1999SciAm.280c..84C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0399-84. ^ Chalmers Mitchell, Peter (15 June 1927). "Reptiles at the Zoo: Opening of new house today". The London Times. London, UK. p. 17. ^ Procter, J. B. (1928). "On a living Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, exhibited at the Scientific Meeting, October 23rd, 1928". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 98 (4): 1017–19. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1928.tb07181.x. ^ Rony, Fatimah Tobing (1996). The third eye: Race, cinema, and ethnographic spectacle. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-8223-1840-8. ^ a b "Komodo National Park Frequently Asked Questions". Komodo Foundation. Retrieved 25 October 2007. ^ "American Museum of Natural History: Komodo Dragons". American Museum of Natural History. Archived from the unique on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2007. ^ Cheater, Mark (August–September 2003). "Chasing the Magic Dragon". National Wildlife Magazine. 41 (5). Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. ^ a b Walsh, Trooper; Murphy, James Jerome; Ciofi, Claudio; De LA Panouse, Colomba (2002). Komodo Dragons: Biology and Conservation. Zoo and Aquarium Biology and Conservation Series. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 978-1-58834-073-3. ^ a b c "Trapping Komodo Dragons for Conservation". National Geographic. Retrieved 8 November 2007. ^ "Varanus komodoensis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 19 June 2007. ^ a b "Ora (Komodo Island Monitor or Komodo Dragon)". American Museum of Natural History. Archived from the unique on 7 March 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2007. ^ "Australia was 'hothouse' for killer lizards". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. ^ Hocknull, S.A.; Piper, P.J.; van den Bergh, G.D.; Due, R.A.; Morwood, M.J.; Kurniawan, I. (2009). "Dragon's paradise lost: palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (Varanidae)". PLOS ONE. 4 (9): e7241. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7241H. doi:10.1371/magazine.pone.0007241. PMC 2748693. PMID 19789642. ^ Vidal, N.; Marin, J.; Sassi, J.; Battistuzzi, F.U.; Donnellan, S.; Fitch, A.J.; et al. (2012). 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"Komodo dragons kill with venom, not bacteria, study says". CNN. 20 May 2009. Retrieved on 25 May 2009. ^ Weinstein, Scott A.; Smith, Tamara L.; Kardong, Kenneth V. (14 July 2009). "Reptile Venom Glands Form, Function, and Future". In Stephen P. Mackessy (ed.). Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles. Taylor & Francis. pp. 76–84. ISBN 978-1-4200-0866-1. Retrieved 18 July 2013. ^ Zimmer, Carl (May 2009). "Venom Might Boost Dragons Bite". San Diego Tribune. Retrieved 26 September 2009. ^ Zimmer, Carl (18 May 2009). "Chemicals in Dragon's Glands Stir Venom Debate". New York Times. p. D2. Retrieved 23 March 2012. ^ a b Ciofi, Claudio (2004). Varanus komodoensis. Varanoid Lizards of the World. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 197–204. ISBN 978-0-253-34366-6. ^ "Komodo Dragon, Varanus komodoensis". San Diego Zoo. Archived from the unique on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2009. ^ a b Markus Makur (2015). "'Wotong' bird nests help Komodos survive: Study". 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"Editor stable after attack by Komodo dragon / Surgeons reattach foot tendons of Chronicle's Bronstein in L.A." San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 23 March 2008.

Further reading

Attenborough, David (1957). Zoo Quest for a Dragon. London: Lutterworth Press. Auffenberg, Walter (1981). The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-0621-5. Burden, W. Douglas (1927). Dragon Lizards of Komodo: An Expedition to the Lost World of the Dutch East Indies. New York, London: G.P. Putnum's Sons. Eberhard, Jo; King, Dennis; Green, Brian; Knight, Frank; Keith Newgrain (1999). Monitors: The Biology of Varanid Lizards. Malabar, Fla: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-57524-112-8. Lutz, Richard L; Lutz, Judy Marie (1997). Komodo: The Living Dragon. Salem, Or: DiMI Press. ISBN 978-0-931625-27-5.

External hyperlinks

Media related to Varanus komodoensis (class) at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Varanus komodoensis at WikispeciesvteVaranoidea Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: SquamataExtant speciesHelodermatidae Chiapan beaded lizard (H. alvarezi) Guatemalan beaded lizard (H. charlesbogerti) Rio Fuerte beaded lizard (H. exasperatum) Mexican beaded lizard (H. horridum) Gila monster (H. suspectum)Lanthanotus Earless observe lizard (L. borneensis)Varanus Asian water track Black tree observe Black-headed track Bengal track Black-spotted ridge-tailed observe Blue-tailed observe Crocodile monitor Desert track Dumeril's monitor Emerald tree observe Gray's observe Kimberley rock monitor Komodo dragon Lace observe Mangrove track Mertens' water track Mitchell's water monitor Nile observe Peacock observe Peach-throated monitor Perentie Pygmy mulga observe Quince observe Rock track Pilbara track Rennell Island observe Rosenberg's observe Roughneck track Short-tailed pygmy observe Spiny-tailed observe Timor tree monitor Turquoise track Sand goanna Savannah observe Yellow monitor Yellow-spotted monitor Yemen monitorRelated classes Monitor lizards Cretaceous lizards HelodermatidaeFossil taxa†Palaeovaranidae PalaeovaranusVaranidae Aiolosaurus Cherminotus Megalania Ovoo Saniwa Saniwides Varanus amnhophilisOthers Telmasaurus Palaeosaniwa vteIndonesia articlesHistory Timeline Hinduism-Buddhism technology Spread of Islam VOC generation (1603–1800) Dutch East Indies (1800–1942) Japanese occupation (1942–45) National Revolution (1945–49) Liberal democracy technology (1950–57) Guided Democracy (1957–65) Transitional length (1965–66) New Order (1966–98) Reformasi (since 1998)Geography Borders Cities Biosphere reserves Deforestation Earthquakes Environmental problems Geology Islands Lakes Mountains Provincial easiest issues National parks Natural historical past Fauna Flora Regions Rivers VolcanoesPolitics Administrative divisions Cabinet Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights Law enforcement Military National capital Pancasila People's Consultative Assembly Police Political parties President (List) Wawasan NusantaraEconomy Agriculture Automotive Aviation Banks Energy History Science and technology Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transport Water supply and sanitationSociety Crime Prostitution Human traffickingCulture Architecture Rumah adat Candi Mosques Colonial Art Batik Ikat Wayang Cinema Cuisine Dance Heroes Legends Literature Martial arts Pencak silat Media Music Gamelan Properties Public vacations Sport Video gamingDemographics Education Ethnic groups Health Healthcare Homelessness Languages Nusantara Religion WomenSymbols Anthem Costume Emblem Faunal emblems Flag Floral logos Garuda Motto Personification SongsOutlineIndex Category Portal Gallery Atlas Taxon identifiers Wikidata: Q4504 Wikispecies: Varanus komodoensis ADW: Varanus_komodoensis ARKive: varanus-komodoensis BioLib: 59493 ECOS: 6201 EoL: 790179 EPPO: VARNKO GBIF: 2470854 iNaturalist: 39449 IRMNG: 11395309 ITIS: 202168 IUCN: 22884 NCBI: 61221 RD: komodoensis Species+: 7119 uBio: 208829 Authority keep an eye on GND: 4444717-6 LCCN: sh88005390 MA: 2778664781

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